Completely normal. Some of those are hard.
Define “too much time”. Learning can be a long process. You are learning - be proud of that.
Some of that is an instinct that develops over time. It develops by doing it.
I caught one of those cooking challenge shows. I can’t remember which one. It was the one with Gordon Ramsey on it. Anyway, one of the challenges, he decides to join it. They all have an hour to make a dish with whatever ingredients. Everyone is stunned when Ramsey doesn’t start cooking immediately. The contestants are working frantically, while Ramsey just walks around, gives the other contestants suggestions, chats with the judges. 10 minutes go by. 20, 30. The contestants are freaking out that they won’t have enough time to finish. Finally, with only 20 minutes left, Ramsey walks over to his station and starts working. He’s calm and focused. He has it all planned out in his head. He looks like a zen master, moving calmly and assuredly, flawlessly. While the others are desperately freaking out in the last minutes, Ramsey calmly finishes his amazing dish and plates it with panache with 10 seconds to spare.
It took him years to develop that skill. He got it by doing a lot of cooking. In the process, I’m sure he burned a lot of omelettes. I’m sure he collapsed a lot of soufles. But over time he got better. He honed his skills and his instincts. He could probably open my fridge and look at my spice rack and instantly plan out a 5-course meal.
You want to look at coding problem and instantly know what approach is best and how to structure it? Then code. Code a lot. Write bad code if that is all you can do. If you write enough bad code, eventually you’ll start writing good code.
You mentioned multiple approaches? After I finished each challenge, I would do a google search for other people doing it. There are some cool youtube videos. Sometimes they had a better approach. Sometimes they had just a different approach. Sometimes they had the same approach as mine but did it better. Sometimes worse.
Just code, code, code. Your Spidey Sense for algorithms will improve. You can also read books on algorithms and computer science.