I really think you’re overthinking this. If you’ve gotten to precalc, then you have what you need.
In terms of actual math, other than rudimentary arithmetic, you mainly need to understand functions and maybe some basic set theory. But you’ve had all of that.
Other than that it’s more about being able to visualize the problem and solution, understanding algorithms. Some people have an innate ability for that, but everyone can learn. But it’s something you’ll get from doing it.
As a guitar teacher, I get a lot of people asking me, “How do I strengthen my fingers for guitar?” They see all these crazy gadgets in magazines or think there are some magical exercises. My answer is always simple, “Play lots of guitar.” There is no better way to strengthen those exact muscles in that exact way.
So, how do you build the math skills you need for coding? Just code. You will learn as you go. A lot of it you already know. Some of it you will intuit. Some of it you will learn heuristically. Some of it you will need to research. But just code and learn. There is no book called “Math Leecatjones Will Need to Learn Coding”. Just code and learn. If something confuses you, check google. If that doesn’t work, come ask us. But it is impossible for us to come up with a list of everything you need to know. You’ve got to figure that out for yourself. But when you find a hurdle we’ll be more than happy to help you out.