I get you think it has some super special importance, but it’s just a possibly useful interview tool. Yes, it can show thought process, that’s the point. But it’s a blunt tool, and interviewees generally hate doing it. It isn’t a super well regarded technique, but its been used for a long time and is pretty easy to implement.
An interview is a special case: it’s generally [for most people] extraordinary stressful, so don’t be so disengenuous. Obviously being able to speak well in front of groups of people is a useful skill: not essential for a developer, but useful in most jobs (at any point in history, not just “this day and age”).
Continuous delivery is technique for reducing bugs in software. Unless your customer is your operations team, customers don’t normally pressure for continuous delivery.
As I said
A sprint is just some work that a team will work on over the next n weeks where n is however long the sprint is.
It is however long has been decided on by whoever implemented the system. And unlimited amount of time describes Kanban, basically, that is also a valid approach. Not sure how this has anything at all to do with whiteboarding though
“They” being employers, who need to make profit. Yes many companies will train employees. Yes, many companies advertise that they offer a certain % of work time dedicated to exploratory software projects (which has tax benefits, + in reality this time will always be the first to be cut). But this has zip to do with “sprints” which are just as described, a set period of time in which some work is to be done.