By M Chowdhury

To C++, or not to C++, that is the question. 🤔 — William Shakespeare (1564–1616)

The other day out of curiosity, I looked into the C++ algorithm library. And found out quite a good number of cool features!

This literally amazed me.

Why? I mean I have mostly written C++ throughout my university life. And it was particularly because of my love-hate relationship with competitive programming.

And very unfortunately, I had never really taken advantage of this amazing library C++ has offered us.

Gosh I felt so naïve!

So I decided it was time to stop being naive and get to know the usefulness of C++ algorithms — at least at a higher level. And as an old man once said, sharing knowledge is power — so here I am.

Disclaimer: I have heavily used features from C++11 and beyond. If you are not quite familiar with newer editions of the language, the code snippets I have provided here might seem a bit clumsy. On the other hand, the library we discuss here is far more self-sufficient and elegant than anything I have written below. Feel free to find mistakes and point them out. And also, I could not really consider many of C++17 additions in this post, as most of its features are yet to be brought into life in GCC.

So without further ado, let’s begin!

  1. all_of any_of none_of

These functions simply look for whether all, any or none of the elements of a container follows some specific property defined by you. Check the example below:

std::vector<int> collection = {3, 6, 12, 6, 9, 12};

// Are all numbers divisible by 3?
bool divby3 = std::all_of(begin(collection), end(collection), [](int x) {
    return x % 3 == 0;
// divby3 equals true, because all numbers are divisible by 3

// Is any number divisible by 2?
bool divby2 = std::any_of(begin(collection), end(collection), [](int x) {
    return x % 2 == 0;
// divby2 equals true because 6, 12 divisible by 2

// Is no number divisible by 6?
bool divby6 = std::none_of(begin(collection), end(collection), [](int x) {
    return x % 6 == 0;
// divby6 equals false because 6, 12 divisible by 6

Notice how in the example, the specific property is passed as a lambda function.

So all_of, any_of, none_of look for some specific property in your collection. These functions are pretty much self explanatory on what they are supposed to do. Along with the introduction of lambdas in C++11, they are pretty handy to use.

2. for_each

I have always been so accustomed to using age-old for loop that this cute thing never crossed my sight. Basically, for_each applies a function to a range of a container.

std::vector<int> collection = {2,4,4,1,1,3,9};

// notice that we pass x as reference!
std::for_each(begin(collection), end(collection), [] (int &x) {
    x += 26;

If you are a JavaScript developer, the above code should ring a bell.

3. count count_if

Pretty much like the functions described in the beginning, count and count_if both look for specific properties in your given collection of data.

std::vector<int> collection={1, 9, 9, 4, 2, 6};

// How many 9s are there in collection?
int nines = std::count(begin(collection), end(collection), 9);
// How many elements of the collection are even?
int evens = std::count_if(begin(collection), end(collection), [](int x) {
    return x % 2 == 0;
// nines equals 2, evens equals 3

And a result, you receive the count that matches your given value, or has the given property that you provide in the form of a lambda function.

4. find_if

Say you want to find the first element in your collection satisfying a particular property. You can use find_if.

std::vector<int> collection = {1, 2, 0, 5, 0, 3, 4};

// itr contains the iterator to the first element following the specific property
auto itr = std::find_if(begin(collection), end(collection), [](int x) {
    return x % 2==0; // the property

Remember, as shown in the above example, you will get the iterator to the first element that matches your given property. So what if you want to find all the elements that match the property using find_if?

An abstract art to look at if you are getting bored. 😜 (Steve Johnson on Unsplash)

5. generate

This function essentially changes the values of your collection, or a range of it, based on the generator you provide. The generator is a function of the form
T f(); where T is a compatible type with our collection.

std::vector<int> collection={1, 2, 0, 5, 0, 3, 4};

int counter=0;

// notice that we are capturing counter by reference
std::generate(begin(collection), end(collection), [&]() {
    return counter++;

// collection gets replaced by values starting from 0
// modified collection = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6}

In the above example, notice that we are actually changing our collection in-place. And the generator here is the lambda function we provided.

6. shuffle

From the standard of C++17, random_shuffle has been removed. Now we prefer shuffle which is more effective, given that it takes advantage of the header random.

std::vector<int> collection = {1, 2, 13, 5, 12, 3, 4};

std::random_device rd;
std::mt19937 rand_gen(rd());
std::shuffle(begin(collection), end(collection), rand_gen);

Note that we are using Mersenne Twister, a pseudo-random number generator introduced in C++11.

Random number generators have become far more mature in C++ with the introduction of random library and inclusion of better methods.

7. nth_element

This function is quite useful, given that it has an interesting complexity.

Say you want to know the n-th element of your collection if it was sorted, but you do not want to sort the collection to make an O(n log(n)) operation.

What would you do?

Then nth_element is your friend. It finds the desired element in O(n).

std::vector<int> collection = {1, 2, 13, 5, 12, 3, 4};

auto median_pos = collection.begin() + collection.size() / 2;
std::nth_element(begin(collection), median_pos, end(collection));

// note that the original vector will be changed due to the operations
// done by nth_element

Interestingly, nth_element may or may not make your collection sorted. It will just do whatever order it takes to find the n-th element. Here is an interesting discussion on StackOverflow.

And also, you can always add your own comparison function (like we added lambdas in previous examples) to make it more effective.

8. equal_range

So let’s say you have a sorted collection of integers. You want to find the range in which all the elements have a specific value. For example:

// sorted collection
std::vector<int> collection={1, 2, 5, 5, 5, 6, 9, 12};

// we are looking for a range where all elements equal to 5
auto range = std::equal_range(begin(collection), end(collection), 5);

// the required range is printed like this
std::cout << (range.first - begin(collection)) << " " <<
  			 (range.second - begin(collection)) << std::endl;

In this code, we are looking for a range in the vector that holds all 5. The answer is (2~4).

Of course we can use this function for our own custom property. You need to ensure that the property you have aligns with the order of the data. See this article for reference.

Finally, lower_bound and upper_bound both can help you to achieve the same that you achieved using equal_range.

9. merge inplace_merge

Imagine you have two sorted collections (what a fun thing to imagine, right?), you want to merge them, and you also want the merged collection to remain sorted. How would you do that?

You can just add the second collection to the first one and sort the result again which adds an extra O(log(n)) factor. Instead of that, we can just use merge.

std::vector<int> c1 = {1, 2, 5, 5, 5, 6, 9, 12};
std::vector<int> c2 = {2, 4, 4, 5, 7, 15};

std::vector<int> result; // contains merged elements
std::merge(begin(c1), end(c1), begin(c2), end(c2), std::back_inserter(result));

// result = {1, 2, 2, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 15}

On the other hand, do you remember when implementing merge sort, we need to merge two sides of our array? inplace_merge can be conveniently used for that.

Look at this tiny merge sort based on the example given in cppreference:

void merge_sort(auto l, auto r)
    if(r - l > 1)
        auto mid = l+(r-l)/2;
        merge_sort(l, mid);
        merge_sort(mid, r);
        std::inplace_merge(l, mid, r);

std::vector<int> collection = {2, 4, 4, 1, 1, 3, 9};
merge_sort(begin(collection), end(collection));

How cool is that!

Speaking of cool, here is a cool guy. 😎 (Dawid Zawiła on Unsplash)

10. minmax minmax_element

minmax returns the minimum and maximum of the given two values, or the given list. It returns a pair and it can also provide the functionality of your own comparison method. minmax_element does the same for your container.

int a = 9, b = 12;

// out.first contains the minimum element, out.second is the maximum one
auto out = std::minmax(a, b);

std::vector<int> collection = {6, 5, 3, 2, 1, 4, 6, 7};
auto result = std::minmax_element(begin(collection), end(collection));

// you can also add compare function as the third argument
// (result.first - collection.begin()) is the index of the minimum element
// (result.second - collection.begin()) is the index of the maximum element

11. accumulate partial_sum

accumulate does what it says, it accumulates values of your collection in the given range, using the initial value and a binary operation function. See for yourself:

std::vector<int> collection = {6, 5, 3, 2, 1, 4, 6, 7};

// Note that we are providing 0 as the initial value, as it should be.
// std::plus<int>() tells that the function should do sums
int sum = std::accumulate(begin(collection), end(collection), 0, std::plus<int>());

// What would happen if initial value was 0 instead of 1 in this call?
int prod = std::accumulate(begin(collection), end(collection), 1, std::multiplies<int>());

// You can also use your custom binary operation.
int custom = std::accumulate(begin(collection), end(collection), 0, [](int x, int y) {
    return x+y;

So how is the value of custom calculated?

At the beginning, accumulate takes the initial value (0) to the argument x, the first value in the collection (6) to argument y, does the operation, then assigns it to the accumulated value. In the second call, it passes the accumulated value to x and the next element in the collection to y, and thus proceeds.

partial_sum does things much like accumulate, but it also keeps the result of first n terms in a destination container.

std::vector<int> collection = {6, 5, 3, 2, 1, 4, 6, 7};
std::vector<int> sums, mults;

// contains the partial sum of collection in result
std::partial_sum(begin(collection), end(collection), std::back_inserter(sums));

// contains the partial product
std::partial_sum(begin(collection), end(collection), std::back_inserter(mults), std::multiplies<int>());

And of course as you expected, you can use your own custom operation.

12. adjacent_difference

You want to find the adjacent differences in your values, you can simply use this function.

std::vector<int> collection = {6, 5, 3, 2, 1, 4, 6, 7};
std::vector<int> diffs;
std::adjacent_difference(begin(collection), end(collection), std::back_inserter(diffs));
// The first element of diffs will be same as the first element of collection

Pretty simple, right?

But it can do much more. Look at this:

std::vector<int> fibs(10, 1);
std::adjacent_difference(begin(fibs), end(fibs) - 1, begin(fibs) + 1, std::plus<>{});

What do these two lines do? They find the first 10 Fibonacci numbers! Do you see how? 🤔

So that was it for today. Thanks for reading! I hope you learned something new.

I would definitely like to bring some new stuff for ya’ll again in near future.

Cheers! 🍻