by Kurt

Sherlock Holmes would have been a brilliant programmer

Bugs are inevitable.

It is quite normal to spend more time debugging than you spend writing actual code. If you are learning to program and you absolutely hate debugging your own code, stop now.

Find a new hobby or trade that you enjoy. Otherwise, you will soon discover the true definition of insanity: debugging another programmer’s legacy code, wondering what on earth they were thinking.

Alternatively, you could simply change your mindset and stop hating bugs.

Here are some of the reasons why I enjoy debugging…

  1. It’s a challenge. To me, a bug is a puzzle to solve. I love puzzles, so it’s like the app is giving me an hour to play Sudoku.
  2. It makes me a better programmer. Debugging code is undeniably one of the best methods of learning.
  3. Sometimes it makes me laugh. To be a programmer, you need to have a good sense of humor. You also need to be able to laugh your own stupidity, or the humor of the situation.
  4. It is the best insight I can get into my users’ thoughts. Beyond your initial tests, you should never test your own applications — nor should another programmer. This is because you will never break your app the way your users will. The best tester I ever had was my boss’s 5-year-old son, who tested all of our iPad apps. If he couldn’t use the app, our users wouldn’t be able to either. The question when debugging doesn’t end at “How did the user do it?” but also expands to “Why did the user do it?”

I found this pie chart on the ProgrammerHumor subreddit that perfectly sums up my average day:

Note that the majority of time is spent implementing safeguards. This is the definition of preventative programming.

If your graph is the same, great. Maybe we can exchange tips. But if you’re probably like most of us, and spend the majority of you time wondering what the hell your user did to make a fixed variable undefined or turn a string into an integer.

Then this post may be particularly helpful to you.

Why Sherlock Holmes would have been an excellent programmer

The first Sherlock Holmes book was written way back in 1887, long before computers were invented. All of these books are packed full of lessons that you can apply to programming.

If this comes as a surprise to you, remember that data has existed as long as the written word has, and that the reason computers where invented was to handle data.

Sherlock Holmes is most famous for using his “method of deduction”:

When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth. — Sherlock Holmes in The Sign of Four

If I had to apply this thinking to a function it would be something like…

When you have prevented everything a function shouldn’t do, it can only do what it should.

Let’s dive into some simple habits that can help you save countless hours of debugging by applying this theory.

How fix to bugs before they happen

Take a look at the below function that searches an array and returns the value if found either as is or as the result of a callback function:

function arraySearch(value, array, callback) {  callback = callback || false;  for (var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {    if (array[i] == value) {      if (callback) {        return callback(value);      } else {        return value;      }    }  }}var result = arraySearch(4,[1,2,3,4],function(val){return val+val;});

At first glance it seems perfectly fine.

But let’s take a step back and use a preventative approach and focus instead on what the function shouldn’t do.

There are four points that we want to address in this exercise

  1. It shouldn’t break easily. If at all possible we want to prevent it from stopping on error. Instead it should return.

2. It should never return undefined. We want it to return false instead.

3. It must never make implicit or “loose” match.

4. When we must throw an error it should not be a generic error. We want something readable for both ourselves and the poor programmer who needs to work on this code after us.

Getting Started

Point 1 seems like it’s asking a lot but in essence we just want it to fail gracefully and return a predictable value like false instead of stopping the bus.

First off, it absolutely must have an inputted value and array to run. So lets modify the function with this in mind.

function arraySearch(value, array, callback) {  if (value === undefined || array === undefined) {    return false;  }  callback = callback || false;  for (var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {    if (array[i] == value) {      if (callback) {        return callback(value);      }      else {        return value;      }    }  }}

Great, that’s sorted. By checking if the arguments are undefined we are ensuring that values have been passed to them.

Our callback already has a default value, so that is taken care of. But what if our array is not an array? Or in the same breath what if our callback is not a function?

Let’s take care of this next…

function arraySearch(value, array, callback) {  if (value === undefined || array === undefined || (array instanceof Array) === false) {    return false;  }  callback = callback || false;  if (callback !== false && typeof callback !== 'function') {    throw 'Callback to arraySearch is not a function';    return false;  }  for (var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {    if (array[i] == value) {      if (callback) {        return callback(value);      }      else {        return value;      }    }  }}

Awesome. Now by checking the typeof the callback we are sure that the callback is a valid function and by checking that the array is an instanceof the Array object we are also sure that the array is an Array.

So let’s move onto point 2 — “It should never return undefined”.

Well for starters our function does not have a default return value for when there is no match. Equally important, is the fact that we have no way of knowing what the callback function will return.

We can fix this by making the function return a variable so that we only need to check if it is undefined or null once.

function arraySearch(value, array, callback) {  if (value === undefined || array === undefined || (array instanceof Array) === false) {    return false;  }  callback = callback || false;  var result = null;  if (callback !== false && typeof callback !== 'function') {    throw 'Callback to arraySearch is not a function';    return false;  }  for (var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {    if (array[i] == value) {      if (callback) {        result = callback(value);      }      else {        result = value;      }    }  }  return result || false;}

Sorted. Setting the value of result to either the match or to the result of the callback function allows us to return either the result or false, should the result be undefined or null.

Point 3. An implicit or loose match can be described as being relatively equal i.e. false == 0 or ‘4’ == 4 etc.

We want to avoid this. What if we are searching for false in an Array containing Zero?

We can fix this by changing the below line:

  if (array[i] == value) {//must change to  if (array[i] === value) {

=== means exactly equal to. Always do an explicit match when checking values. This habit will save you countless hours of time in the long run because you won’t be trying to debug statement that is evaluating as true.

Now for the last point.

When throwing an error we want it to be friendly. This functionality is already demonstrated when passing an invalid callback function, but what if a valid callback function throws an error?

Anonymous functions can be a pain to debug, so let’s try and make debugging a little less painful:

function arraySearch(value, array, callback) {  if (value === undefined || array === undefined || (array instanceof Array) === false) {    return false;  }  callback = callback || false;  var result = null;  if (callback !== false && typeof callback !== 'function') {    throw 'Callback to arraySearch is not a function';    return false;  }  for (var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {    if (array[i] === value) {      if (callback) {        try{          result = callback(value);        }catch(e){          throw 'Callback function in arraySearch threw the error : '+e.message;        }      }      else {        result = value;      }    }  }  return result || false;}

There we have it.

To solve the issue we use a simple try / catch statement and then re-throw the error with a custom message. Now if a callback function fails we will immediately know that it was the callback function that failed and not our arraySearch function.

Summary

All in all, we now have a function that should give us minimal hassles in the future. And if it does have an issue, it should be fast and easy to correct.

The basics of my tips on preventative programming can be summed up in 6 points…

  1. Check that your input values exist and set default values where necessary.
  2. Always make sure your input is of the same type as you are looking for. Never assume that an Array will be an Array or that an Integer will be an Integer.
  3. Always do an explicit match when comparing values (===).
  4. Write functions that return predictable values i.e. return false when failed or false or return the expected result when true.
  5. Try to write pure functions. A pure function is a function that always returns an expected value, and does not modify the original variables passed to it in any way.
  6. Throw custom errors where needed especially when executing callbacks and anonymous functions. You won’t remember exactly what your code does in 8 month’s time, so do yourself a favor and throw a clear error message while you still know what your code does.

I’ll leave you with some great quotes from Sherlock Holmes

Moral : Do not make assumptions before collecting data

It is a capital mistake to theorize before you have all the evidence. It biases the judgment. — A Study in Scarlet
It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. -A Scandal in Bohemia
Still, it is an error to argue in front of your data. You can find yourself insensibly twisting them round to suit your theories. -The Adventure of Wisteria Lodge
Let me run over the principal steps. We approached the case, you remember, with an absolutely blank mind, which is always an advantage. We had formed no theories. We were simply there to observe and to draw inferences from our observations. -The Adventure of the Cardboard Box
“Data! Data! Data!” he cried impatiently. “I can’t make bricks without clay. -The Adventure of the Copper Beeches

Moral : Don’t let your emotions override logic

Detection is, or ought to be, an exact science, and should be treated in the same cold and unemotional manner.-The Sign of Four
The emotional qualities are antagonistic to clear reasoning. -The Sign of Four

Moral : Focus on core feature’s and use-cases

It is of the highest importance in the art of detection to be able to recognize, out of a number of facts, which are incidental and which vital. Otherwise your energy and attention must be dissipated instead of being concentrated. -The Reigate Puzzle

And a few more that you can take your own lesson from

Nothing clears up a case so much as stating it to another person. -Silver Blaze
I have already explained to you that what is out of the common is usually a guide rather” than a hindrance. -A Study in Scarlet
‘The more outre’ and grotesque an incident is the more carefully it deserves to be examined, and the very point which appears to complicate a case is, when duly considered and scientifically handled, the one which is most likely to elucidate it. -The Hound of the Baskervilles
Any truth is better than indefinite doubt. -The Yellow Face
I never guess. It is a shocking habit — destructive to the logical faculty -The Sign of Four

That’s all I have for this post. If you enjoyed reading it and would like to read another technical post take a look at:

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