by Joanna Gaudyn

An intro to the spread operator and rest parameter in JavaScript (ES6)

Both the spread operator and the rest parameter are written as three consecutive dots (…). Do they have anything else in common?


The spread operator (…)

The spread operator was introduced in ES6. It provides you with the ability to expand iterable objects into multiple elements. What does it really mean? Let’s check some examples.

const movies = ["Leon", "Love Actually", "Lord of the Rings"];console.log(...movies);


Leon Love Actually Lord of the Rings
const numbers = new Set([1, 4, 5, 7]);console.log(...numbers);


1 4 5 7

You might notice that both the array from the first example and the set from the second one have been expanded into their individual elements (strings and digits respectively). How can this be of any use, you may ask.

The most common use is probably combining arrays. If you ever had to do this in the times before the spread operator, you probably used the concat() method.

const shapes = ["triangle", "square", "circle"];const objects = ["pencil", "notebook", "eraser"];const chaos = shapes.concat(objects);console.log(chaos);


[“triangle”, “square”, “circle”, “pencil”, “notebook”, “eraser”]

That’s not too bad, but what the spread operator offers is a shortcut, which makes your code look way more readable too:

const chaos = [...shapes, ...objects];console.log(chaos);


[“triangle”, “square”, “circle”, “pencil”, “notebook”, “eraser”]

Here’s what we’d get if we tried doing the same without the spread operator:

const chaos = [shapes, objects];console.log(chaos);


[Array(3), Array(3)]

What happened here? Instead of combining the arrays, we got a chaos array with the shapes array at index 0 and the objects array at index 1.


The rest parameter (…)

You can think of the rest parameter as the opposite of the spread operator. Just as the spread operator allows you to expand an array into its individual elements, the rest parameter lets you bundle elements back into an array.

Assigning values of an array to variables

Let’s have a look at the following example:

const movie = ["Life of Brian", 8.1, 1979, "Graham Chapman", "John Cleese", "Michael Palin"];const [title, rating, year, ...actors] = movie;console.log(title, rating, year, actors);


“Life of Brian”, 8.1, 1979, [“Graham Chapman”, “John Cleese”, “Michael Palin”]

The rest parameter let us take the values of the movie array and assign them to several individual variables using destructuring. This way title, rating, and year are assigned the first three values in the array, but where the real magic happens is actors. Thanks to the rest parameter, actors gets assigned the remaining values of the movie array, in form of an array.

Variadic functions

Variadic functions are functions which take an indefinite number of arguments. One good example is the sum() function: we can’t know upfront how many arguments will be passed to it:

sum(1, 2);sum(494, 373, 29, 2, 50067);sum(-17, 8, 325900);

In earlier versions of JavaScript, this kind of function would be handled using the arguments object, which is an array-like object, available as a local variable inside every function. It contains all values of arguments passed to a function. Let’s see how the sum() function could be implemented:

function sum() {  let total = 0;    for(const argument of arguments) {    total += argument;  }  return total;}

It does work, but it’s far from perfect:

  • If you look at the definition for the sum() function, it doesn’t have any parameters. It can be quite misleading.
  • It can be hard to understand if you’re not familiar with the arguments object (as in: where the heck are the arguments coming from?!)

Here’s how we’d write the same function with the rest parameter:

function sum(...nums) {  let total = 0;    for(const num of nums) {    total += num;  }  return total;}

Note that the loop has been replaced with the for...of loop as well. We made our code more readable and concise at once.

Hallelujah ES6!

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