Every programming language has certain keywords with specific, prebuilt functionalities and meanings.

Naming your variables or functions after these keywords is most likely going to raise an error. We'll discuss one of these cases in this article — the TypeError: 'str' object is not callable error in Python.

The TypeError: 'str' object is not callable error mainly occurs when:

  • You pass a variable named str as a parameter to the str() function.
  • When you call a string like a function.

In the sections that follow, you'll see code examples that raise the TypeError: 'str' object is not callable error, and how to fix them.

Example #1 – What Will Happen If You Use str as a Variable Name in Python?

In this section, you'll see what happens when you used a variable named str as the str() function's parameter.

The str() function is used to convert certain values into a string. str(10) converts the integer 10 to a string.

Here's the first code example:

str = "Hello World"

print(str(str))
# TypeError: 'str' object is not callable

In the code above, we created a variable str with a value of "Hello World". We passed the variable as a parameter to the str() function.

The result was the TypeError: 'str' object is not callable error. This is happening because we are using a variable name that the compiler already recognizes as something different.

To fix this, you can rename the variable to a something that isn't a predefined keyword in Python.

Here's a quick fix to the problem:

greetings = "Hello World"

print(str(greetings))
# Hello World

Now the code works perfectly.

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Example #2 – What Will Happen If You Call a String Like a Function in Python?

Calling a string as though it is a function in Python will raise the TypeError: 'str' object is not callable error.

Here's an example:

greetings = "Hello World"

print(greetings())
# TypeError: 'str' object is not callable

In the example above, we created a variable called greetings.

While printing it to the console, we used parentheses after the variable name – a syntax used when invoking a function: greetings().

This resulted in the compiler throwing the TypeError: 'str' object is not callable error.

You can easily fix this by removing the parentheses.

This is the same for every other data type that isn't a function. Attaching parentheses to them will raise the same error.

So our code should work like this:

greetings = "Hello World"

print(greetings)
# Hello World
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Summary

In this article, we talked about the TypeError: 'str' object is not callable error in Python.

We talked about why this error might occur and how to fix it.

To avoid getting this error in your code, you should:

  • Avoid naming your variables after keywords built into Python.
  • Never call your variables like functions by adding parentheses to them.

Happy coding!