by William Gottschalk

Write Modern Asynchronous Javascript using Promises, Generators, and Coroutines

How you might feel after learning about Promises, Generators, and Coroutines

Over the years, “Callback Hell” is often cited as one of the most hated design patterns in Javascript for managing concurrency. Just in case you’ve forgotten what that looks like, here is an example of a varying and processing a transaction in Express:

Promises were supposed to save us…

I was told that promises would allow us Javascript developers to write asynchronous code as if it were synchronous by wrapping our async functions in a special object. In order to access the value of the Promise, we call either .then or .catch on the Promise object. But what happens when we try to refactor the above example using Promises?

Since each function inside of the callback is scoped, we cannot access the user object inside of the second .then callback.

So after a little digging, I couldn’t find an elegant solution, but I did find a frustrating one:

Just indent your promises so that they have proper scoping.

Indent my promises!? So its back to the Pyramid of Doom now?

I would argue that the nested callback version looks cleaner and is easier to reason about than the nested promise version.

Async Await Will Save Us!

The async and await keywords will allow us to write our javascript code as though it is synchronous. Here is code written with those keywords coming in ES7:

Unfortunately the majority of ES7 features including async/await have not been natively implemented and therefore, require the use of a transpiler. However, you can write code that looks exactly like the code above using ES6 features that have been implemented in most modern browsers as well as Node version 4+.

The Dynamic Duo: Generators and Coroutines

Generators are a great metaprogramming tool. They can be used for things like lazy evaluation, iterating over memory intensive data sets and on-demand data processing from multiple data sources using a library like RxJs.

However, we wouldn’t want to use generators alone in production code because they forces us to reason about a process over time. And each time we call next, we jump back to our generator like a GOTO statement.

Coroutines understand this and remedy this situation by wrapping a generator and abstracting away all of the complexity.

The ES6 version using Coroutine

Coroutines allow us to yield our asynchronous functions one line at a time, making our code look synchronous.

It’s important to note that I am using the Co library. Co’s coroutine will execute the generator immediately where as Bluebird’s coroutine will return a function that you must invoke to run the generator.

Let’s establish some basic rules to using coroutines:

  1. Any function to the right of a yield must return a Promise.
  2. If you want to execute your code now, use co.
  3. If you want to execute your code later, use co.wrap.
  4. Make sure to chain a .catch at the end of your coroutine to handle errors. Otherwise, you should wrap your code in a try/catch block.
  5. Bluebird’s Promise.coroutine is the equivalent to Co’s co.wrap and not the co function on it’s own.

What if I want to run multiple processes concurrently?

You can either use objects or arrays with the yield keyword and then destructure the result.

Libraries that you can use today:

Promise.coroutine | bluebird
Bluebird is a fully featured JavaScript promises library with unmatched performance.bluebirdjs.comco
generator async control flow goodnesswww.npmjs.comBabel · The compiler for writing next generation JavaScript
The compiler for writing next generation JavaScriptbabeljs.ioasyncawait
async/await for node.jswww.npmjs.com