by Jacob Goh

How to build a simple & customizable web scraper using RxJS and Node


After getting to know RxJS (thanks to Angular!), I realized that it’s surprisingly a good fit for handling web scraping operations.

I tried it out in a side project and I would like to share my experience with you. Hopefully, this will open your eyes to how reactive programming can make your life simpler.

The codes can be found on


  • Node
  • RxJS and intermediate understanding of it
  • cheerio: it allows you to use jQuery-like syntax to extract information out of HTML code
  • request-promise-native: for sending HTTP request

Hypothetical Goal

Everybody loves a good comedy movie.

Let’s make it our goal to scrape a list of good comedy movies from IMDB.

There are only 3 requirements that the target data needs to fulfill:

  • it is a movie (not TV shows, music videos, etc)
  • it is a comedy
  • it has a rating of 7 or higher

Get Started

Let’s set our base URL and define a BehaviorSubject allUrl$ that uses the base URL as the initial value.

(A BehaviorSubject is a subject with an initial value.)

const { BehaviorSubject } =  require('rxjs');const  baseUrl  =  ``;const  allUrl$  =  new  BehaviorSubject(baseUrl);

allUrl$ is going to be the starting point of all crawling operations. Every URL will be passed into allUrl$ and be processed on later.

Making sure that we scrape each URL only once

With the help of distinct operators and normalize-url, we can easily make sure that we never scrape the same URL twice.

// ...const { map, distinct, filter } =  require('rxjs/operators');const  normalizeUrl  =  require('normalize-url');
// ...
const  uniqueUrl$  =  allUrl$.pipe(    // only crawl IMDB url    filter(url  =>  url.includes(baseUrl)),    // normalize url for comparison    map(url  =>  normalizeUrl(url, { removeQueryParameters: ['ref', 'ref_']     })),    // distinct is a RxJS operator that filters out duplicated values    distinct());

It’s time to start scraping

We are going to make a request to each unique URL and map the content of each URL into another observable.

To do that, we use mergeMap to map the result of the request to another observable.

const { BehaviorSubject, from } =  require('rxjs');const { map, distinct, filter, mergeMap } = require('rxjs/operators');const rp = require('request-promise-native');const  cheerio  =  require('cheerio');
//...const urlAndDOM$ = uniqueUrl$.pipe(  mergeMap(url => {    return from(rp(url)).pipe(      // get the cheerio function $      map(html => cheerio.load(html)),      // add URL to the result. It will be used later for crawling      map($ => ({        $,        url      }))    );  }));

urlAndDOM$ will emit an object consisting of 2 properties, which are $ and url. $ is a Cheerio function where you can use something like $('div').text() to extract information out of raw HTML code.

Crawl all the URLs

const { resolve } =  require('url');//...
// get all the next crawlable URLsurlAndDOM$.subscribe(({ url, $ }) => {  $('a').each(function(i, elem) {    const href = $(this).attr('href');    if (!href) return;
// build the absolute url    const absoluteUrl = resolve(url, href);    allUrl$.next(absoluteUrl);  });});

In the code above, we scrape all the links inside the page and send them to allUrl$ to be crawled later.

Scrape and save the movies we want!

const  fs  =  require('fs');//...
const isMovie = $ =>  $(`[property='og:type']`).attr('content') === '';const isComedy = $ =>  $(`.title_wrapper .subtext`)    .text()    .includes('Comedy');const isHighlyRated = $ => +$(`[itemprop="ratingValue"]`).text() > 7;
urlAndDOM$  .pipe(    filter(({ $ }) => isMovie($)),    filter(({ $ }) => isComedy($)),    filter(({ $ }) => isHighlyRated($))  )  .subscribe(({ url, $ }) => {    // append the data we want to a file named "comedy.txt"    fs.appendFile('comedy.txt', `${url}, ${$('title').text()}\n`);  });

Yup, we just created a web scraper

In around 70 lines of code, we have created a web scraper that

  • automatically crawled URLs without unnecessary duplicates
  • automatically scrapes and saves the info we want in a text file

You may see the code up to this point in

If you have ever tried writing a web scraper from scratch, you should be able to see now how elegant it is to write one with RxJS.

But we are not done yet…

In an ideal world, the code above should work forever without any problems.

But in reality, silly errors happen.

Handling Errors

Limit the number of active concurrent connections

If we send too many requests to a server in a short period of time, it’s likely that our IP will be temporarily blocked from making any further requests, especially for an established website like IMDB.

It’s also considered rude/unethical to send so many requests at once because it would create a heavier load on the server and in some cases, crash the server.

mergeMap has built-in functionality to control concurrency. Simply add a number to the 3rd function argument and it will limit the active concurrent connection automatically. Graceful!

const maxConcurrentReq = 10;//...const urlAndDOM$ = uniqueUrl$.pipe(  mergeMap(    //...    null,    maxConcurrentReq  ));

Code Diff:

Handle and Retry Failed Request

Requests may fail randomly due to dead links or server-side rate limiting. This is crucial for web scrapers.

We can use catchError, retry operators to handle this.

const { BehaviorSubject, from, of } =  require('rxjs');const {  // ...  retry,  catchError} = require('rxjs/operators');//...
const maxRetries = 5;// ...
const urlAndDOM$ = uniqueUrl$.pipe(  mergeMap(    url => {      return from(rp(url)).pipe(        retry(maxRetries),        catchError(error => {          const { uri } = error.options;          console.log(`Error requesting ${uri} after ${maxRetries} retries.`);          // return null on error          return of(null);        }),        // filter out errors        filter(v => v),        // ...      );    },

Code Diff:

Improved Retry Failed Request

Using retry operator, the retry would happen immediately after the request failed. This is not ideal.

It’s better to retry after a certain period of delay.

We can use the genericRetryStrategy suggested in learnrxjs to achieve this.

Code Diff:


To recap, in this post, we discussed:

  • how to crawl a web page using Cheerio
  • how to avoid duplicated crawl using RxJS operators like filter, distinct
  • how to use mergeMap to create an observable of request’s response
  • how to limit concurrency in mergeMap
  • how to handle error
  • how to handle retry

I hope this has been helpful to you and has deepened your understanding of RxJs and web scraping.

Originally published at