In this article, you will learn how to split a string in Python.
Firstly, I'll introduce you to the syntax of the
.split() method. After that, you will see how to use the
.split() method with and without arguments, using code examples along the way.
Here is what we will cover:
You use the
.split() method for splitting a string into a list.
The general syntax for the
.split() method looks something like the following:
Let's break it down:
stringis the string you want to split. This is the string on which you call the
.split()method accepts two arguments.
- The first optional argument is
separator, which specifies what kind of separator to use for splitting the string. If this argument is not provided, the default value is any whitespace, meaning the string will split whenever
.split()encounters any whitespace.
- The second optional argument is
maxsplit, which specifies the maximum number of splits the
.split()method should perform. If this argument is not provided, the default value is
-1, meaning there is no limit on the number of splits, and
.split()should split the string on all the occurrences it encounters
.split() method returns a new list of substrings, and the original string is not modified in any way.
Here is how you would split a string into a list using the
.split() method without any arguments:
coding_journey = "I am learning to code for free with freeCodecamp!" # split string into a list and save result into a new variable coding_journey_split = coding_journey.split() print(coding_journey) print(coding_journey_split) # check the data type of coding_journey_split by using the type() function print(type(coding_journey_split)) # output # I am learning to code for free with freeCodecamp! # ['I', 'am', 'learning', 'to', 'code', 'for', 'free', 'with', 'freeCodecamp!'] # <class 'list'>
The output shows that each word that makes up the string is now a list item, and the original string is preserved.
When you don't pass either of the two arguments that the
.split() method accepts, then by default, it will split the string every time it encounters whitespace until the string comes to an end.
What happens when you don't pass any arguments to the
.split() method, and it encounters consecutive whitespaces instead of just one?
coding_journey = "I love coding" coding_journey_split = coding_journey.split() print(coding_journey_split) # output # ['I', 'love', 'coding']
In the example above, I added consecutive whitespaces between the word
love and the word
coding. When this is the case, the
.split() method treats any consecutive spaces as if they are one single whitespace.
As you saw earlier, when there is no
separator argument, the default value for it is whitespace. That said, you can set a different
separator will break and divide the string whenever it encounters the character you specify and will return a list of substrings.
For example, you could make it so that a string splits whenever the
.split() method encounters a dot,
fave_website = "www.freecodecamp.org" fave_website_split = fave_website.split(".") print(fave_website_split) # output # ['www', 'freecodecamp', 'org']
In the example above, the string splits whenever
.split() encounters a
Keep in mind that I didn't specify a dot followed by a space. That wouldn't work since the string doesn't contain a dot followed by a space:
fave_website = "www.freecodecamp.org" fave_website_split = fave_website.split(". ") print(fave_website_split) # output # ['www.freecodecamp.org']
Now, let's revisit the last example from the previous section.
When there was no
separator argument, consecutive whitespaces were treated as if they were single whitespace.
However, when you specify a single space as the
separator, then the string splits every time it encounters a single space character:
coding_journey = "I love coding" coding_journey_split = coding_journey.split(" ") print(coding_journey_split) # output # ['I', 'love', '', '', 'coding']
In the example above, each time
.split() encountered a space character, it split the word and added the empty space as a list item.
When there is no
maxsplit argument, there is no specified limit for when the splitting should stop.
In the first example of the previous section,
.split() split the string each and every time it encountered the
separator until it reached the end of the string.
However, you can specify when you want the split to end.
For example, you could specify that the split ends after it encounters one dot:
fave_website = "www.freecodecamp.org" fave_website_split = fave_website.split(".", 1) print(fave_website_split) # output # ['www', 'freecodecamp.org']
In the example above, I set the
1, and a list was created with two list items.
I specified that the list should split when it encounters one dot. Once it encountered one dot, the operation would end, and the rest of the string would be a list item on its own.
And there you have it! You now know how to split a string in Python using the
I hope you found this tutorial helpful.
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You'll start from the basics and learn in an interactive and beginner-friendly way. You'll also build five projects at the end to put into practice and help reinforce what you've learned.
Thank you for reading, and happy coding!