In JavaScript, objects are used to store multiple values as a complex data structure.

An object is created with curly braces {…} and a list of properties. A property is a key-value pair where the key must be a string and the value can be of any type.

On the other hand, arrays are an ordered collection that can hold data of any type. In JavaScript, arrays are created with square brackets [...] and allow duplicate elements.

Until ES6 (ECMAScript 2015), JavaScript objects and arrays were the most important data structures to handle collections of data. The developer community didn't have many choices outside of that. Even so, a combination of objects and arrays was able to handle data in many scenarios.

However, there were a few shortcomings,

  • Object keys can only be of type string.
  • Objects don't maintain the order of the elements inserted into them.
  • Objects lack some useful methods, which makes them difficult to use in some situations. For example, you can't compute the size (length) of an object easily. Also, enumerating an object is not that straightforward.
  • Arrays are collections of elements that allow duplicates. Supporting arrays that only have distinct elements requires extra logic and code.

With the introduction of ES6, we got two new data structures that address the shortcomings mentioned above: Map and Set. In this article, we will look at both closely and understand how to use them in different situations.

Map in JavaScript

Map is a collection of key-value pairs where the key can be of any type. Map remembers the original order in which the elements were added to it, which means data can be retrieved in the same order it was inserted in.

In other words, Map has characteristics of both Object and Array:

  • Like an object, it supports the key-value pair structure.
  • Like an array, it remembers the insertion order.

How to Create and Initialize a Map in JavaScript

A new Map can be created like this:

const map = new Map();

Which returns an empty Map:

Map(0) {}

Another way of creating a Map is with initial values. Here's how to create a Map with three key-value pairs:

const freeCodeCampBlog = new Map([
  ['name', 'freeCodeCamp'],
  ['type', 'blog'],
  ['writer', 'Tapas Adhikary'],

Which returns a Map with three elements:

Map(3) {"name" => "freeCodeCamp", "type" => "blog", "writer" => "Tapas Adhikary"}

How to Add values to a Map in JavaScript

To add value to a Map, use the set(key, value) method.

The set(key, value) method takes two parameters, key and value, where the key and value can be of any type, a primitive (boolean, string, number, etc.) or an object:

// create a map
const map = new Map();

// Add values to the map
map.set('name', 'freeCodeCamp');
map.set('type', 'blog');
map.set('writer', 'Tapas Adhikary');


Map(3) {"name" => "freeCodeCamp", "type" => "blog", "writer" => "Tapas Adhikary"}

Please note, if you use the same key to add a value to a Map multiple times, it'll always replace the previous value:

// Add a different writer
map.set('writer', 'Someone else!');

So the output would be:

{"name" => "freeCodeCamp", "type" => "blog", "writer" => "Someone else!"}

How to Get values from a Map in JavaScript

To get a value from a Map, use the get(key) method:

map.get('name'); // returns freeCodeCamp

All About Map Keys in JavaScript

Map keys can be of any type, a primitive, or an object. This is one of the major differences between Map and regular JavaScript objects where the key can only be a string:

// create a Map
const funMap = new Map();

funMap.set(360, 'My House Number'); // number as key
funMap.set(true, 'I write blogs!'); // boolean as key

let obj = {'name': 'tapas'}
funMap.set(obj, true); // object as key


Here is the output:

  360 => "My House Number", 
  true => "I write blogs!", 
  {…} => true

A regular JavaScript object always treats the key as a string. Even when you pass it a primitive or object, it internally converts the key into a string:

// Create an empty object
const funObj = {};

// add a property. Note, passing the key as a number.
funObj[360] = 'My House Number';

// It returns true because the number 360 got converted into the string '360' internally!
console.log(funObj[360] === funObj['360']);

Map Properties and Methods in JavaScript

JavaScript's Map has in-built properties and methods that make it easy to use. Here are some of the common ones:

  • Use the size property to know how many elements are in a Map:
  • Search an element with the has(key) method:
  • Remove an element with the delete(key) method:
  • Use the clear() method to remove all the elements from the Map at once:
console.log('size of the map is', map.size);
// returns true, if map has an element with the key, 'John'

// returns false, if map doesn't have an element with the key, 'Tapas'
map.delete('Sam'); // removes the element with key, 'Sam'.
// Clear the map by removing all the elements

map.size // It will return, 0

MapIterator: keys(), values(), and entries() in JavaScript

The methods keys(), values() and entries() methods return a MapIterator, which is excellent because you can use a for-of or forEach loop directly on it.

First, create a simple Map:

const ageMap = new Map([
  ['Jack', 20],
  ['Alan', 34],
  ['Bill', 10],
  ['Sam', 9]
  • Get all the keys:
  • Get all the values:
  • Get all the entries (key-value pairs):

// Output:

// MapIterator {"Jack", "Alan", "Bill", "Sam"}

// Output

// MapIterator {20, 34, 10, 9}

// Output

// MapIterator {"Jack" => 20, "Alan" => 34, "Bill" => 10, "Sam" => 9}

How to Iterate Over a Map in JavaScript

You can use either the forEach or for-of loop to iterate over a Map:

// with forEach
ageMap.forEach((value, key) => {
   console.log(`${key} is ${value} years old!`);

// with for-of
for(const [key, value] of ageMap) {
  console.log(`${key} is ${value} years old!`);

The output is going to be the same in both cases:

Jack is 20 years old!
Alan is 34 years old!
Bill is 10 years old!
Sam is 9 years old!

How to Convert an Object into a Map in JavaScript

You may encounter a situation where you need to convert an object to a Map-like structure. You can use the method entries of Object to do that:

const address = {
  'Tapas': 'Bangalore',
  'James': 'Huston',
  'Selva': 'Srilanka'

const addressMap = new Map(Object.entries(address));

How to Convert a Map into an Object in JavaScript

If you want to do the reverse, you can use the fromEntries method:


How to Convert a Map into an Array in JavaScript

There are a couple of ways to convert a map into an array:

  • Using Array.from(map):
  • Using the spread operator:
const map = new Map();
map.set('milk', 200);
map.set("tea", 300);
map.set('coffee', 500);


Map vs. Object: When should you use them?

Map has characteristics of both object and array. However, Map is more like an object than array due to the nature of storing data in the key-value format.

The similarity with objects ends here though. As you've seen, Map is different in a lot of ways. So, which one should you use, and when? How do you decide?

Use Map when:

  • Your needs are not that simple. You may want to create keys that are non-strings. Storing an object as a key is a very powerful approach. Map gives you this ability by default.
  • You need a data structure where elements can be ordered. Regular objects do not maintain the order of their entries.
  • You are looking for flexibility without relying on an external library like lodash. You may end up using a library like lodash because we do not find methods like has(), values(), delete(), or a property like size with a regular object. Map makes this easy for you by providing all these methods by default.

Use an object when:

  • You do not have any of the needs listed above.
  • You rely on JSON.parse() as a Map cannot be parsed with it.

Set in JavaScript

A Set is a collection of unique elements that can be of any type. Set is also an ordered collection of elements, which means that elements will be retrieved in the same order that they were inserted in.

A Set in JavaScript behaves the same way as a mathematical set.

How to Create and Initialize a Set in JavaScript

A new Set can be created like this:

const set = new Set();

And the output will be an empty Set:

Set(0) {}

Here's how to create a Set with some initial values:

const fruteSet = new Set(['🍉', '🍎', '🍈', '🍏']);


Set(4) {"🍉", "🍎", "🍈", "🍏"}

Set Properties and Methods in JavaScript

Set has methods to add an element to it, delete elements from it, check if an element exists in it, and to clear it completely:

  • Use the size property to know the size of the Set. It returns the number of elements in it:
  • Use the add(element) method to add an element to the Set:
// Create a set - saladSet
const saladSet = new Set();

// Add some vegetables to it
saladSet.add('🍅'); // tomato
saladSet.add('🥑'); // avocado
saladSet.add('🥕'); // carrot
saladSet.add('🥒'); // cucumber


// Output

// Set(4) {"🍅", "🥑", "🥕", "🥒"}

I love cucumbers! How about adding one more?

Oh no, I can't – Set is a collection of unique elements:


The output is the same as before – nothing got added to the saladSet.

  • Use the has(element) method to search if we have a carrot (🥕) or broccoli (🥦) in the Set:
  • Use the delete(element) method to remove the avocado(🥑) from the Set:
// The salad has a🥕, so returns true
console.log('Does the salad have a carrot?', saladSet.has('🥕'));

// The salad doesn't have a🥦, so returns false
console.log('Does the salad have broccoli?', saladSet.has('🥦'));
console.log('I do not like 🥑, remove from the salad:', saladSet);

Now our salad Set is as follows:

Set(3) {"🍅", "🥕", "🥒"}
  • Use the clear() method to remove all elements from a Set:

How to Iterate Over a Set in JavaScript

Set has a method called values() which returns a SetIterator to get all its values:

// Create a Set
const houseNos = new Set([360, 567, 101]);

// Get the SetIterator using the `values()` method


SetIterator {360, 567, 101}

We can use a forEach or for-of loop on this to retrieve the values.

Interestingly, JavaScript tries to make Set compatible with Map. That's why we find two of the same methods as Map, keys() and entries().

As Set doesn't have keys, the keys() method returns a SetIterator to retrieve its values:


// Output

// console.log(houseNos.keys());

With Map, the entries() method returns an iterator to retrieve key-value pairs. Again there are no keys in a Set, so entries() returns a SetIterator to retrieve the value-value pairs:


// Output

// SetIterator {360 => 360, 567 => 567, 101 => 101}

How to Enumerate over a Set in JavaScript

We can enumerate over a Set using forEach and for-of loops:

// with forEach

houseNos.forEach((value) => {

// with for-of

for(const value of houseNos) {

The output of both is:


Sets and Arrays in JavaScript

An array, like a Set, allows you to add and remove elements. But Set is quite different, and is not meant to replace arrays.

The major difference between an array and a Set is that arrays allow you to have duplicate elements. Also, some of the Set operations like delete() are faster than array operations like shift() or splice().

Think of Set as an extension of a regular array, just with more muscles. The Set data structure is not a replacement of the array. Both can solve interesting problems.

How to Convert a Set into an array in JavaScript

Converting a Set into an array is simple:

const arr = [...houseNos];

Unique values from an array using the Set in JavaScript

Creating a Set is a really easy way to remove duplicate values from an array:

// Create a mixedFruit array with a few duplicate fruits
const mixedFruit = ['🍉', '🍎', '🍉', '🍈', '🍏', '🍎', '🍈'];

// Pass the array to create a set of unique fruits
const mixedFruitSet = new Set(mixedFruit);



Set(4) {"🍉", "🍎", "🍈", "🍏"}

Set and Object in JavaScript

A Set can have elements of any type, even objects:

// Create a person object
const person = {
   'name': 'Alex',
   'age': 32

// Create a set and add the object to it
const pSet = new Set();



No surprise here – the Set contains one element that is an object.

Let's change a property of the object and add it to the set again:

// Change the name of the person = 'Bob';

// Add the person object to the set again

What do you think the output will be? Two person objects or just one?

Here is the output:


Set is a collection of unique elements. By changing the property of the object, we haven't changed the object itself. Hence Set will not allow duplicate elements.

Set is a great data structure to use in addition to JavaScript arrays. It doesn't have a huge advantage over regular arrays, though.

Use Set when you need to maintain a distinct set of data to perform set operations on like union, intersection, difference, and so on.

In Summary

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