When you're working with your database, you might need to put together data from a few different tables. This article will show you how.
SQL Join Statement
Join is a statement that lets you put together two tables, matching rows that are related to each other, and keeping only the rows that can be matched, not keeping unpaired rows.
SELECT ... FROM statement indicates which is the first table, then the second table name is written just after the
INNER JOIN keywords.
How the two tables should be joined is written in the
ON statement. In this case the two tables are joined using the relationship
table1.id = table2.id.
It is possible to use multiple join statements together to join more than one table at the same time.
To do that you add a second
INNER JOIN statement and a second
ON statement to indicate the third table and the second relationship.
Let's talk a moment about the relationships you can have between tables and why you might want to join three tables together.
Relationships Between Tables in SQL
When you have tables that are related to each other, their relationships could be one of various types.
In a one-to-many kind of relationship, one row of the first table can be related to multiple rows of the second table.
In a relational database this can be implemented with the second table having a
first_table_id column that says to which row of the first table that row is related.
In a many-to-one kind of relationship, one row of the first table can be related to one single row of the second table, and one row of the second table can be related to multiple rows of the first table.
In a relational database this can be implemented with the first table having a
second_table_id column that says to which row of the second table that row is related.
In this case multiple rows are related to multiple rows.
This kind of relationship can't be represent as is with SQL tables – you need to add a coupling table between the two tables so that only many-to-one and one-to-many relationships are present between tables.
Each row of the table in the middle represents one relationship between the rows of the left table and and the rows of the right table.
In practice in MySQL, that middle table will have a column for
first_table_id and a column for
second_table_id, with each combination being unique.
Joining SQL Tables in Practice
Let's imagine we have an organization's database, where we have a table with teams (their name, and other identifing info), and a table with projects (name, progress, and so on).
|2||Wood gnawers||Gnawing on wood|
|3||The Pink Elephants||Stomping on the ground|
|4||Fluffy potatoes||Working and sleeping|
|1||Dam building||Some more wood gnawing and ground stomping needed|
|2||Banana Cake||Someone is eating all the bananas|
|3||Sleep research||To much sleeping not enough research|
As a team can work on multiple projects, and a project can be worked on by multiple teams, there is also a third table that keeps track of team-project matches.
We can use a
JOIN statement to put everything together when we need to view the info from the tables in a human readable way, like this:
SELECT teams.team_name AS team_name, projects.project_name AS project_name FROM TABLE teams INNER JOIN matches ON teams.id = matches.team_id INNER JOIN matches ON matches.project_id = projects.id ORDER BY teams.id;
We choose which columns to show from each table with a
We specify how the rows of the tables are to be combined with an
And we order the rows in the way we prefer with an
ORDER BY statement.
teams.id = matches.team_id and
matches.projects_id = projects.id mean that the rows are combined using the rows of the
matches table. Each row of the output table has the project name and the team name combined using the pairs of project id and team id in the
The output table will look like below.
|Banana Throwers||Banana Cake|
|Banana Throwers||Sleep Research|
|Wood gnawers||Dam Bulding|
|Wood gnawers||Sleep Research|
|The Pink Elephants||Dam Building|
|The Pink Elephants||Dam Building|
|Fluffy potatoes||Sleep Research|
There is no column directly from the
matches table. The
matches table is not shown in the output but it is used as instructions for how to combine the rows of the
JOIN statement lets you join together one or more tables. It has to be used in conjunction with the
ON statement to determine the relationship between the rows of a table and the rows of a different table.
In this article you have learned how to use the
JOIN statement to join together three different tables.